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Harel, Y. (1999). A cross-national study of youth violence in Europe. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 11, 121–134.

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In 1989, the Centers for Disease control in Atlanta defined the highest priority risk behaviors associated with intentional injuries among youth as involvement in physical fights, being injured in a fight, and carrying any type of weapon. The Europeans attempted to prevent bullying behavior in schools. New strategies emerged to reduce bullying in schools showing dramatic changes in bullying rates. During the late 80s and early 90s, Americans were ignoring daily violence like bullying while focusing more on weapon carrying and gang violence. During this time, Europeans focused on bullying and its effects on school perceptions and well-being. The topic of bullying at school has been included in the mandatory part of the Health Behavior for School-aged Children survey (HBSC) since the late 80s; it includes measures of the frequency of bullying others and being victimized at school. In 1995, the U.S. had the first US-HBSC survey. In Western Europe, high rates of bullying occur. France and Canada had a little higher rate of students being bullied at school at least once during the term than the U.S. France had a greater higher rate of students bullying someone else at least once during the term than Canada and the U.S. All countries that have implemented during the past decade national systematic programs or strategies to reduce youth violence or to improve adolescent health had low rates of bullying. However, high rate countries had not yet implemented national multi-disciplinary programs to address this issue. In 1994, the U.S. implemented a national program to reduce youth violence. In 1998, the U.S. had significantly lower rates of youth violence. The American Youth Study shows a strong protective effect of connectedness with parent with risk-taking behaviors.