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Marini, Z.A., Dane, A.V., Bosacki, S.L., & YLC-CURA. (2006). Direct and indirect bully-victims: Differential psychosocial risk factors associated with adolescents involved in bullying and victimization. Aggressive Behavior, 32, 551-569.

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A total of 7,290 students (ages 13–18 years) from Canada participated in this study. Students were asked to complete a behavioral checklist on their involvement in 12 bullying behaviors during the last school year. Participants rated each item on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from never to a few times a day. One factor comprised four questions that focused on direct bullying behaviors, and the second factor focused on indirect bullying, consisting of four items. Victimization was assessed using the same procedure with two major factors, direct and indirect victimization. To measure social anxiety-fear of negative evaluation, seven items were utilized; participants responded on a 4-point Likert scale ranging from almost never to almost always. A 20-item questionnaire assessed the degree of depressive symptoms they may have experienced over the past 2 weeks; participants rated the extent to which they experienced each depressive item on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from none of the time to most of the time. The Rosenberg [1965] Self-Esteem Scale, a measure consisting of 10 questions, was used to measure feelings of self-worth. Peer Relational Problems was assessed using seven items. Parental Monitoring measured students’ perceptions of parental monitoring. The tracking measure included four items referring to questions parents ask about activities outside the home. The knowledge measure also included four items referring to how much knowledge parents really have of outside activities by their adolescents. Normative beliefs legitimizing antisocial behaviors consisted of 11 questions adapted from the Attitudinal Intolerance of Deviance Questionnaire [Jessor et al., 1995], examining adolescents’ general attitudes and beliefs about the degree to which antisocial acts and aggressive behaviors are right or wrong. Angry-externalizing coping strategies consisted of one question derived from a coping measure developed by Eisenberg et al. [1996], namely, ‘‘When things happen, I get angry and hit something or yell at someone.’’ Positive emotionality consisted of four items, and activity level consisted of three questions. Alienation included nine questions to measure maternal attachment. Trust and communication included eight questions related to maternal attachment.

Results: In reference to indirect bullying and victimization, bully-victims and victims reported a higher level of depression than did bullies and uninvolved adolescents. In regard to self-esteem, bully-victims had a lower level of self-esteem than bullies and uninvolved participants; victims and bully victims had more peer relational difficulties that did bullies and the uninvolved group. Bullies and bully-victims exhibited normative beliefs that were more tolerant of antisocial behavior than did victims and uninvolved students. With regard to angry-externalizing coping, bully-victims, bullies and victims reported more angry coping behaviors than did uninvolved students. Bully-victims and bullies reported less parental knowledge of their activities than did victims and uninvolved adolescents. Bullies, bully-victims and victims reported a greater level of maternal alienation than did uninvolved adolescents. Bully-victims and victims reported a lower level of positive emotionality than bullies and the uninvolved group. In reference to direct bullying and victimization, bully-victims and victims reported lower self-esteem and a higher level of depression than did uninvolved students. Normative beliefs of bullies and bully-victims legitimized antisocial behavior to a greater extent than those of victims and uninvolved adolescents. With regard to angry-externalizing coping, bullies and bully victims reported more angry-externalizing coping behaviors than did uninvolved participant. Bullies, bully-victims and victims reported a greater activity level and a lower degree of maternal attachment trust than did uninvolved adolescents.

Discussion: Clinical services should address not only the externalizing problems but also the internalizing issues of bully-victims.