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Craig, W.M. (1998). The relationship among bullying, victimization, depression, anxiety, and aggression in elementary school children. Personality and Individual Differences, 24, 123–130.

Bullying involves an imbalance of strength, physical or psychological, a negative physical or verbal action, a deliberate intention to hurt someone else, and repetition over time.

Method: 546 children in grades five through eight participated in this study. A shortened version of the bully/victim questionnaire used by Olweus (1989) was used in this study. Two items were used for the bullying scale, “how often have you taken part in bullying others since the beginning of the term?’’ and “how often have you taken part in bullying others in the last five days?’’ Two items were used for the victimization scale, “how often have you been bullied since the beginning of the school term” and “about how many times have you been bullied in the last five days?’’ A classroom discussion and a definition from Olweus (1989) occurred prior to completing the survey. Social Anxiety was measured using 18 items from the Franke & Hymel (1984) Social Anxiety Scale. The Children’s Depression Inventory (Kovacs, 1985) was utilized to describe 26 depressive behaviors. The English version of the relational aggression and victimization scale (RAVS) (Lagerspetz et al., 1988) consisted of six scales assessing physical, verbal, and indirect aggression and victimization.

Results: Male bullies and bully/victims in the younger grades reported more physical aggression than comparison children. For males in the older grades, bullies reported more physical aggression than comparison children. For females in the older grades, bullies and victims reported more physical aggression than comparison children. Male bully/victims in the younger grades reported more verbal aggression than comparison children. For males in the older grades, bullies and victims reported more verbal aggression than comparison children. For females in the older grades, bullies and bully/victims reported more verbal aggression than comparison children. Males scored higher on physical aggression, and older children scored higher on verbal aggression. Females in the lower grades scored higher on depression and anxiety than males in the lower grades. Victims reported significantly higher anxiety than bullies and comparison children. Older children reported more depression than younger children.

Discussion: Male bullies reported more physical aggression than the comparison group. Male bully/victims in the younger grades reported more physical and verbal aggression than the comparison group. Male bullies and victims in the older grades reported more verbal aggression. In the older grades, female bullies reported more physical and verbal aggression than the comparison group.