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Raskauskas, J., & Stoltz, A.D. (2007). Involvement in traditional and electronic bullying among adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 43, 564–575.

This emerging form of bullying, utilizing the Internet and other electronic devices, is called electronic bullying. Electronic bullying may have more impact on youth’s emotional development than traditional bullying because of a greater power imbalance created by the fact that many victims of electronic bullying never know the identity of their bully. Electronic bullying has been defined as a means of bullying in which peers use electronics to taunt, insult, threaten, harass, and/or intimidate a peer.

Method: The present study included 84 participants. All participants were adolescents between the ages of 13 and 18 years. The Internet Experiences Questionnaire included 28 self-report items asking students how often they had experienced each of the different forms of Internet bullying within the current school year. Traditional bullying items were based on the four-item scale by Kochenderfer and Ladd (1996). Adolescents that identified as electronic victims were prompted to answer open-ended questions asking whether they felt that electronic bullying had affected them and if so, how? They were also asked why they thought some adolescents committed bullying using the Internet and cell phones.

Results: More traditional victims were also electronic victims, and most electronic bullies were also traditional bullies. Traditional victim status emerged as a significant predictor of electronic victim status. Traditional bully status and age emerged as significant predictors of electronic bully status, with traditional bullies and older students more likely to identify as electronic bullies.
Discussion: A significant percentage of participants reported involvement in electronic bullying (48.8% victims, 21.4% bullies). Eighty-five percent of electronic victims were also classified as traditional victims, and 94% of electronic bullies were also traditional bullies.