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Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at school: What we know and what we can do (1st ed.). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

What is meant by Bullying? Bullying can be verbal such as threatening, taunting, teasing, and name calling, physical such as hitting, pushing, and kicking, and relational such as intentionally excluding someone from a group. Bullying can be carried out by one person or a group of people. \

Bully/Victim problems in different grades: The percentage of students who are bullied decreases with higher grades. There is also less use of physical bullying in the higher grades.

Bullying among boys and girls: Boys are more exposed to bullying than girls, especially direct bullying. More boys have also participated in bullying, and bullying with physical means is more common among boys. On the other hand, girls use more indirect ways of bullying such as spreading rumors and manipulation of friendship relationships. Overall, boys were more often victims and perpetrators of direct bulling.

Supervision during recess and lunch time: It is of great importance to have a sufficient number of adults present among the students during breaks. The attitudes of teachers toward bullying and their behavior in bullying situations are significant for the extent of bullying problems in the school.

What role do external deviations play? The victims were physically weaker.

What characterizes the typical victims? The typical victims are more anxious and insecure; they are often cautious, sensitive, and quiet. Victims suffer from low self-esteem and have a negative view of their situation. They are also lonely and abandoned at school. Hyperactive students who also have concentration problems may be at risk for becoming victims.

What we can do about bullying? There are various measures at the school, class, and individual levels that can be used. For the school level, there can be a school conference day on bullying problems, better supervision during breaks, a more attractive school playground, parents meeting staff, teacher groups for the development of the school climate, and parent circles. For the class level, there can be class rules against bullying: clarification, praise, and sanctions, regular class meetings, role playing, cooperative learning, and common positive class activities. For the individual level there can be serious talks with bullies, victims, and their parents, help from bystanders, help and support for parents, discussion groups for parents of bullies and victims, and change of class or school.