Cyberbullying: Cyberbullying is one of the online risks youth face and the one they are most likely to encounter more often from someone they know than from a stranger (Kowalski et at., 2012a).
Comparing face-to-face bullying with cyberbullying: Olweus (1993, 1999) defines bullying as intentional harm to a victim, a repetition of harmful behaviors, and a power imbalance between the victim and the perpetrator(s) of the bullying behavior. Traditional bullying and cyberbullying both may cause considerable distress to the victims, often result in part from a lack of supervision, and usually start at school and have an impact on the school day (Agatston et al., 2012; Cassidy et al., 2011; Cassidy, Jackson, & Brown, 2009; Hinduja & Patchin, 2012a, 2012b; Kowalski et al., 2012a; Olweus, 2012a;Tokunaga, 2010). Cyberbullying has been referred to as covert psychological bullying (Sharitf & Gouin, 2005). Rumors, gossip, exclusion, and attacks against reputations and relationships are common forms of both relational aggression and cyberbullying (Jackson, Cassidy, & Brown, 2009b). In cyberbullying, there is no capacity for the perpetrator to see the victim's immediate reaction to his or her behavior (Smith, 2012b. This allows for disinhibition and deindividuation (Agatston et at., 2012; Davis & Nixon, 2012; Patchin & Hinduja, 2011; von Marees & Petermann, 2012). There is also the possibility of anonymity in cyberbullying. While anonymous messages may be perceived as more threatening and more fear- and anxiety-inducing, cyberbullying by known and/or trusted persons can also be very damaging (Dooley et al., 2009; Nocentini et al., 2010). Girls may be more involved as both victims and perpetrators in cyberbullying. The definition of cyberbullying which appears to have the greatest degree of adherence is that of Smith and his colleagues (2008, p. 376): 'an aggressive, intentional act carried out by a group or individual, using electronic forms of contact, repeatedly and over time against a victim who cannot easily defend him or herself.
Varieties of impact (On the victim): Some effects of cyberbullying are depression, poor self-esteem, anxiety, suicidal ideation and psychosomatic problems like headaches and sleep disturbances' (Olweus, 2012a, p. 532; see also Kowalski et al., 2012b; Menesini & Nocentini, 2012; Smith 2012b). Some research participants view cyberbullying worse than traditional bullying, whereas some find them equally as deleterious (Kowalski et al., 2012a; Menesini & Nocentini, 2012; Monks, Robinson, & Worlidge, 2012; Sakellariou, Carroll, & Houghton, 2012; Smith, 2012a, 2012b; Smith & Slonje, 2010). Some feel anonymous messages are worse than those from someone you know however others argue that being cyberbullied by someone you know is more damaging. The breadth of the potential audience in cyberbullying can also act to aggravate the victims' feelings of humiliation (Menesini & Nocentini, 2012; Nocentini et al., 2010). Cyberbullying can result in reduced concentration, school avoidance, increased school absences, isolation, lower academic achievement, negative perceptions of school climate, not feeling safe at school, and a greater likelihood for carrying weapons to school (Hinduja & Patchin, 2007; 2008; Marczak & Coyne, 2010; Ybarra, Diener-West, & Leaf, 2007). There also have been many effects of cyberbullying on the mental health of victims, including depression, low self-esteem, helplessness, social anxiety, and suicidal ideation (Agatston et al., 2012; Kowalski et al., 2012a; Marczak & Coyne, 2010; Menesini & Nocentini, 2012; Patchin & Hinduja, 2012a; Smith, 2012b; Sourander et al., 2010; Tokunaga, 2010; von Marees & Petermann, 2012). There is also research linking cyberbullying victimization to maladaptive behaviours such as aggressive behaviour, externalizing behaviours, deviant behaviours, more alcohol and drug use/abuse and smoking, and delinquency (shoplifting, property damage, physical assaults, weapons) (Agatston et al., 2012; Marczak & Coyne, 2010; Menesini & Nocentini, 2012; Patchin & Hinduja, 2012a; Sourander et al., 2010). Girls reported with greater frequency that they felt their reputation was affected by the cyberbullying they experienced, that their concentration was affected, that it influenced their ability to make friends, and that it induced suicidal thoughts.
Varieties of impact (On the bully): Cyberbullying is associated with hyperactive behavior, conduct problems, and less prosocial peer group behavior (von Marees & Petermann, 2012). Cyberbullies are more likely to report illicit substance use and participation in delinquent behaviour (Hinduja & Patchin, 2008; Ybarra & Mitchell, 2004).Campbell, Slee, Spears, Butler, and Kift (2013) found that cyberbullies had higher rates of social difficulties, stress, depression, and anxiety than youths uninvolved in bullying.
Coping strategies (for victims): According to Perren et al. (2012), social support is probably the coping strategy with the best indicators of success.
Coping strategies (for schools): Middle and high school students have recommended the development of programs to teach about cyberbullying and its effects (Cassidy et at., 2011). In a related study (Cassidy, Brown, & Jackson, 2012a), parents also strongly recommended that school personnel develop lessons on cyberbullying and its effects and that students be given the opportunity to engage with the issues through discussion. Additionally, the curriculum should include an emphasis on fostering empathy and positive self-esteem. Positive bystander behavior should be taught and reinforced (Agatston et al., 2012). Jager et al. (2010) suggest that a training manual for educators include information about the basics of cyberbullying, information about training skills and strategies for diagnosis and intervention, and multimedia resources. It is recommended that schools find ways to make reporting easier (Agatston et al., 2012; Marczak & Coyne, 2010). Youth are more inclined to report to adults in schools with a positive climate (Hinduja & Patchin, 2012b).
Coping strategies (for parents): Patchin (2012) states that parents should be involved and receive training alongside educators to be able to work collaboratively with school personnel and their children to find effective solutions.
Role of educators In relation to cyberbullying: Psychological service providers must inform themselves about the issues youth face in relation to cyberbullying and consult with parents, staff, and other care-takers. Hinduja and Patchin (2012b) suggest that cyberbullying can be reduced through measures aimed at improving school climate such as learning students' names so they do not feel anonymous, community-building through recognizing and rewarding good behavior, staying technologically-contemporary to know what students are interested in, setting and communicating clear limits, encouraging student participation in decision-making, and encouraging reporting of inappropriate behaviors.
Role of students in relation to cyberbullying: Peer-led interventions have been found to be effective, especially when the peers receive extensive training (Agatston et al., 2012; Cross, Campbell, & Spears, 2012a; Menesini & Nocentini, 2012; Van Kaenel-Flatt & Douglas, 2012).